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Coconut Oil and Cancer (part 1)

        Below is a long post to coconut oil list.  The post was plain text so I started converting it to HTML, but the post is very long, so the work was long and boring.   If the URLs are not clickable, copy/paste URL into a browser window.   Part 1 of 2.


Virgin Coconut and Cancer
Research by: LD Wedewer PhD
Cancer research, studies, and reviews (short list)

There are some things in this world that we all dread to hear. Something no one hopes to experience. And a physician confirming that you are afflicted with fatal cancer is definitely one of it! But thanks to virgin coconut oil, there is after all a way out of this seemingly hopeless situation. It is a sad truth that so many people are afflicted with this fatal disease. Cancer ranks second in the leading cause of death statistics of the United States. It is said that approximately one million people acquire cancer each year.

There are various types of cancer but one characteristic that all cancer diseases share is the rapid growth of abnormal cells in the body. Normal cells follow a regular cycle of growth, division and death. In the early stage of life, there is rapid cellular activity. But cells of a healthy adult person only divide to replace dying cells and to heal damage caused by injuries.

Cancer cells keep on growing and dividing and create abnormal cells. Cancer cells may spread and cause problems to other parts of the body. This is triggered by a damage to DNA. Unlike normal cells, cancer cells cannot repair damaged DNA. Damaged DNA can be acquired through hereditary means or environmental exposure. Most cancers (but not all) are manifested by a tumor. The chance of a cancer patient to survive depends largely on how soon the disease was diagnosed and given necessary treatments. Radical change in one' s diet and lifestyle is also prescribed.

The Miracle Cure

Virgin coconut oil can be used as a weapon to fight cancer and save precious lives. This statement is proven not only by numerous testimonies of cancer survivors but with the results of medical studies.

Regular consumption of virgin coconut oil will strengthen the immune system. Only a strong immune system can defeat the formation of cancer cells before they can create major damage. Developing a strong immune system is the first step in prevention and treatment of cancer and other diseases.

Virgin coconut oil can also cure skin cancer as proven in a study where coconut oil is applied on the skin of mice which were applied with cancer causing chemicals. Several applications of virgin coconut oil stopped tumor development. Therefore, virgin coconut oil can alter the composition of tumor tissue and thus inhibit tumor growth.

In the physiology department some recall how saturated _fats_
were always deemed as being very bad. The rationale is based on saturated fat being associated with increased
_cholesterol_ and consequently, heart disease (Margen et al., 1991; Marieb, 1998). The mechanism of insult is based on a long-term progression of fatty plaques occluding the lumen (Squires, 1998). This process is thought to occur throughout daily life when there are abrupt increases in _blood pressure_ from various causes and with excess cholesterol floating around in the blood, the ruptures in the endothelium are patched up by fatty acids (Sime et al., 1998). Over time, this accumulation in the inner lining of the endothelium eventually leads to a smaller vessel diameter and all it takes is one bolus of material to clog the small lumen to trigger what is known as a myocardial infarction (heart attack).

Personally, I believe that this physiological model on atherosclerosis is true for the most part. However, I firmly believe that there are certain vested interests and biased views from powers that be towards natural cures and preventative methods (Fife, 2004; Trudeau, 2004; Trudeau, 2007). Well, to my and in a few minutes, your amazement, it is (Dayrit, 2003). Let me just impress the heck out of everyone by supporting this last statement with some concrete and solid research studies, expert opinions and scientific rationale.

Medium-Chain Triglycerides (MCT)

Coconut oil contains ~ 64% MCT (Dayrit, 2003; Fife, 2004). This is more than any other food in existence. Research has clearly shown that MCT's are thermogenic (Scalfi et al., 1991) and that less is stored away as body fat (Papamandjaris et al., 2000; St-Onge & Jones, 2002; St-Onge & Jones, 2003). The reason for this phenomenon is that the _MCT's_ are rapidly absorbed from the intestines directly into the portal system and sent to the liver instead of through the lymphatic system like all other fats; they also do not require carnitine for transport and they are quickly oxidized and used for energy much like _carbohydrates_ (Amarasiri & Dissanayake, 2006; Aoyama et al., 2007; Bach & Babayan, 1982; Hashim, 1967; Manore et al., 1993; Pehowich et al., 2000). View MCT's Sorted By Top Seller _Here_

Research has shown coconut oil does not increase risk of _heart disease_ (Cox et al., 1998; Elson, 1992; Kumar, 1997; Lindeberg, 1997; Lipoeto et al., 2004), and in some research it actually lowers risk of heart disease (Kaunitz, 1986; Prior et al., 1981). Other research has shown virgin coconut oil to lower lipid levels by way of the biologically active polyphenol components present in the oil (Nevin & Rajamohan, 2004).

On the contrary, coconut oil is mainly saturated fat. What is more impressive is that if there was ever a healthy saturated fat, this is it! Again, with ~64% being MCT, it could be logically deducted that less than half of the fat consumed will be stored as fat, provided the body is in the ideal condition for such an occurrence. However, during a low-_calorie_ cycle of which either _carbs_ _fats_  are reduced, with _protein_ being kept normal to high normal, less fat will be stored away from coconut oil since the body will be in a caloric deficit. Since the body will be in a negative caloric balance, it will not want to store MCT as body fat, but rather, it will be scavenging for energy to try and provide energy! Thus, the MCT from the coconut oil will be immediately oxidized for fuel, hence less stored as body fat. It is clear that saturated fat, but more in particular, _cholesterol_, is needed for _testosterone_ production (Marieb, 1998). Some cancers are treated with testosterone which makes this another good reason for use with cancer patients. (LD Wedewer,PhD) When trying to hold on to muscle while dieting, keeping protein normal to high-normal is essential in partitioning substrate oxidation towards carbs and fats. However, several studies have shown that low saturated fat diets lead to decreased testosterone production (Berrino et al., 2001; Hamalainen et al., 1983; Hamalainen et al., 1984). In essence, if one limits saturated fat content to prudent levels and consumes cholesterol in prudent levels, one can see optimal testosterone levels. It is typically when one eats excess of saturated fat and cholesterol does the increase testosterone come along with the increased risk of prostate cancer. Testosterone does not cause prostate cancer, it is excess amounts of saturated fat and cholesterol along with an unhealthy lifestyle that increases risk. In addition to parasites, fungus and mold type bacterias, and cancer causing viruses, this is a medical and scientific proof and why so many people today are self treating their own cancers and curing it when modern medicine can only place the cancer into remission awaiting 3 years to grow and 5-10 years to re-detect it's location (LD Wedewer, PhD) Having normal to high testosterone levels actually reduce the risk of prostate cancer and can be cardioprotective (Bain, 2007; Mearini et al., 2008). Bruce Fife, N.D., says, "Every single one of us has cancerous cells in our bodies. As long as As long as the immune system is functioning in the manner for which it was designed, we need not worry about cancer." "In other words, cancer can only develop in those individuals whose immune systems are so stressed or weakened that they are incapable of mounting an effective defense. Thus, a healthy immune system is a key element in the prevention of all forms of cancer," he adds. The anti-viral effects of MCFA's (medium-chain fatty acids) in Extra virgin coconut oil has been studied, documented and proven by various research groups here and in the US. Cancer can be caused by a number of factors such as free radicals and carcinogenic chemicals, the effects of which appear to be tempered by coconut oil. Other known causes are viruses. Human papillomavirus (HPV), for instance, is found in virtually every case of cervical cancer. Other viruses that may be linked to cancer include the Epstein-Barr virus, ytomegalovirus and adenovirus. Virgin coconut oil may be helpful in preventing these cancers because of MCFA's anti-viral effects. Researchers concluded that MCFA's enhance the immune system. A group of researchers tested these hypotheses and found that monolaurin, a monoglyceride of lauric acid, stimulates the production of white blood cells, specifically T cells which attack and kill anything that is foreign to the body, including cancerous cells.

Another study shows that MCFA's can influence the fatty acid composition of tumor tissue and tumor protein kinetics inhibiting tumor growth. Virgin Coconut oil can also cure skin cancer as proven in a study where Virgin Coconut oil is applied on the skin of mice which were applied with cancer causing chemicals. Several applications of Virgin Coconut oil stopped tumor development. Therefore, Virgin Coconut oil can alter the composition of tumor tissue and thus inhibit tumor growth. These pieces of evidence show that virgin coconut oil acts as a protective anti-oxidant that stops the destructive action and cancer-promoting effect of free radicals. It enhances the immune system, which actively fights renegade cells and blocks the uncontrolled growth of cancer cells against the mutagenic effects of carcinogens. Lauric acid-rich Extra Virgin Coconut oil takes over the task of destroying many of the invading microbes. And with less harmful organisms around to cause trouble, the white blood cells of your immune system are free to search and destroy cancerous cells. Only other natural source for Lauric acid is Human breast milk, which provides a immune system to babies. Virgin Coconut oil can be used as a weapon to fight cancer and save precious lives. This statement is proven not only by numerous testimonies of cancer survivors but with the results of medical studies. Regular consumption of Virgin Coconut oil will strengthen the immune system. Only a strong immune system can defeat the formation of cancer cells before they can create major damage. Developing a strong immune system is the first step in prevention and treatment of cancer and other diseases. Pls visit Video on Virgin Coconut oil as treatment for Cancer :

Researches on Animals

Hawaiians call coconut water noelani (no-way lah-nee), which means "dew from the heavens." Coconut water has a long history of use as both a food and as a medicine. Coconut water contains a variety of nutrients including vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, amino acids, enzymes, growth factors, and other phytonutrients. Since coconuts are grown near the sea, the roots have access to a continual supply of mineral rich salt water. These minerals are absorbed by the roots and find their way into the fruit of the coconut. For this reason, coconut water is a good source of the major minerals like magnesium, calcium, and potassium. It is particularly rich in potassium, an essential nutrient; one 8-ounce cup of coconut water has more potassium than a banana. It also contains a variety of trace elements such as zinc, selenium, iodine, sulfur, manganese, boron, molybdenum, and others. All derived from volcanic soils and seawater from which the coconut palms are grown. All of these minerals are in the form of electrolytes so they are easily absorbable by the human body. Many of the health benefits attributed to coconut water can be traced to its mineral content. The fat content of coconut water is so low it is essentially fat-free. Coconut water is relatively low in sugar compared to other fruit juices. It contains only a fifth of the sugar that you get from an equal amount of fresh grape or apple juice. Even though it is low in sugar, it has a mildly sweet, delightful taste, making it an excellent alternative to fruit juice and sodas. In regulating cell growth, cytokinins also prevent mistakes that may lead to the development of cancer. Normal cells are kept healthy while cancerous cells are programmed to die, preventing them from growing and spreading. Much of the early research on cytokinins was funded by The American Cancer Society. Soon after the discovery of cytokinins in the 1950s researchers quickly recognized their potential in fighting cancer. Subsequently, the anti-cancer effects of cytokinins have been well documented.5-6 References 1. Macalalag, E.V. and Macalalag, A.L. Bukolysis: young coconut water renoclysis for urinary stone dissolution. Int Surg 1987;72:247. 2. Alleyne, T., et al. The control of hypertension by use of coconut water and mauby: two tropical food drinks. West Indian Med J 2005;54:3-8. 3. Shah, N.J., et al. Use of coco-nut water in treatment of congestive cardiac failure. Ind Jour Med Res 1956;44:341-351. 4. Rattan, S.I.S. and Clark, B.F.C. Kinetin delays the onset of ageing characteristics in human fibroblasts. Biochem Biophys Res 1994;201:665-672. 5. Adair, W.L. and Brennan, S.L. The role of N-6-isopentenyl adenine in tumor cell growth. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1986;137:208-214. 6. Dolezal, K, et al. Preparation and biological activity of 6-benzylaminopurine derivatives in plants and human cancer cells. Bioorg Med Chem 2006;14:875-874. Coconut oil provides a quick and easy source of nutrition because of it is easily digested and aids assimilation of other nutrients. For this reason it has been recommended in the treatment of malnutrition (which can be a problem in a person suffering from pancreatic cancer). Coconut oil can help with fatigue and a whole range of conditions because its antimicrobial effects defeat organisms in the body, which may be draining the body's strength and causative to the condition. COCO SAP AND CANCER. Administrator Garin likewise highlighted the potential of fresh coco sap or toddy which contains inositol in the medication of cancer patients. "We have to develop a way of prolonging the shelf life of coco sap while maintaining its fresh and pure form, and the validation as well as of the health benefits through a clinical study," he said.

When Albert Schweitzer operated his clinic in tropical Africa, he said it was many years before he saw any cases of cancer, and he believed that the appearance of cancer was caused by the change to the European type of diet. In the l920s, German researchers showed that mice on a fat-free diet were practically free of cancer. Since then, many studies have demonstrated a very close association between consumption of unsaturated oils and the incidence of cancer. Heart damage is easily produced in animals by feeding them linoleic acid; this "essential" fatty acid turned out to be the heart toxin in rape-seed oil. The addition of saturated fat to the experimental heart-toxic oil-rich diet protects against the damage to heart cells. Immunosuppression was observed in patients who were being "nourished" by intravenous emulsions of "essential fatty acids," and as a result coconut oil is used as the basis for intravenous fat feeding, except in organ-transplant patients. For those patients, emulsions of unsaturated oils are used specifically for their immunosuppressive effects. General aging, and especially aging of the brain, is increasingly seen as being closely associated with lipid peroxidation. Several years ago I met an old couple, who were only a few years apart in age, but the wife looked many years younger than her doddering old husband. She was from the Philippines, and she remarked that she always had to cook two meals at the same time, because her husband couldn't adapt to her traditional food. Three times every day, she still prepared her food in coconut oil. Her apparent youth increased my interest in the effects of coconut oil. But other researchers who were studying vitamin B6 recognized the condition as a deficiency of that vitamin. They were able to cause the condition by feeding a fat-free diet, and to cure the condition by feeding a single B vitamin. The hypermetabolic animals simply needed a better diet than the "normal," fat-fed, cancer-prone animals did. G. W. Crile and his wife found that the metabolic rate of people in Yucatan, where coconut is a staple food, averaged 25% higher than that of people in the United States. In a hot climate, the adaptive tendency is to have a lower metabolic rate, so it is clear that some factor is more than offsetting this expected effect of high environmental temperatures. The people there are lean, and recently it has been observed that the women there have none of the symptoms we commonly associate with the menopause However, in 1980, experimenters demonstrated that young rats fed milk containing soy oil incorporated the oil directly into their brain cells, and had structurally abnormal brain cells as a result. Lipid peroxidation occurs during seizures, and antioxidants such as vitamin E have some anti-seizure activity. Currently, lipid peroxidation is being found to be involved in the nerve cell degeneration of Alzheimer's disease. Various fractions of coconut oil are coming into use as "drugs," meaning that they are advertised as treatments for diseases. Butyric acid is used to treat cancer, lauric and myristic acids to treat virus infections, and mixtures of medium-chain fats are sold for weight loss. Purification undoubtedly increases certain effects, and results in profitable products, but in the absence of more precise knowledge, I think the whole natural product, used as a regular food, is the best way to protect health. When people become interested in coconut oil as a "health food," the huge seed-oil industry--operating through their shills--are going to attack it as an "unproved drug." While components of coconut oil have been found to have remarkable physiological effects (as antihistamines, antiinfectives/antiseptics, promoters of immunity, glucocorticoid antagonist, nontoxic anticancer agents, for example), I think it is important to avoid making any such claims for the natural coconut oil, because it very easily could be banned from the import market as a "new drug" which isn't "approved by the FDA." Now, it seems that the effect is just one more toxic action, in which the liver defensively retains its cholesterol, rather than releasing it into the blood. Large scale human studies have provided overwhelming evidence that whenever drugs, including the unsaturated oils, were used to lower serum cholesterol, mortality increased, from a variety of causes including accidents, but mainly from cancer. Since the l930s, it has been clearly established that suppression of the thyroid raises serum cholesterol (while increasing mortality from infections, cancer, and heart disease), while restoring the thyroid hormone brings cholesterol down to normal. In this situation, however, thyroid isn't suppressing the synthesis of cholesterol, but rather is promoting its use to form hormones and bile salts. When the thyroid is functioning properly, the amount of cholesterol in the blood entering the ovary governs the amount of progesterone being produced by the ovary, and the same situation exists in all steroid-forming tissues, such as the adrenal glands and the brain. Progesterone and its precursor, pregnenolone, have a generalized protective function: antioxidant, anti-seizure, antitoxin, anti-spasm, anti-clot, anti-cancer, pro-memory, pro-myelination, pro-attention, etc. Any interference with the formation of cholesterol will interfere with all of these exceedingly important protective functions. As far as the evidence goes, it suggests that coconut oil, added regularly to a balanced diet, lowers cholesterol to normal by promoting its conversion into pregnenolone. (The coconut family contains steroids that resemble pregnenolone, but these are probably mostly removed when the fresh oil is washed with water to remove the enzymes which would digest the oil.) Studies in Sri Lanka

In 1989, a Sri Lankan study conducted by Prof. Shanti Mendis, using male participants showed that when coconut oil is replaced by corn oil, the total blood cholesterol, good (HDL) cholesterol and bad (LDL) cholesterol were similarly decreased. The study found however that consumption of coconut oil, raised both LDL and HDL, and also had the undesirable effect of raising the LDL to HDL ratio. Adding further to the complexity of the subject, Prof. Mendis also found in a subsequent study, that when coconut oil consumption is reduced and that amount is replaced with polyunsaturated oils such as sunflower or sesame oil, total cholesterol and bad cholesterol (LDL) can be reduced without reducing good cholesterol (HDL). It seems therefore, that coconut oil (saturated fat) raised both HDL and LDL, though not proportionally (the LDL: HDL is increased), while polyunsaturated oils decrease both.

The "buzz on the street" about coconut oil's benefits is firmly grounded in science. Saturated fats in general enhance the immune system,3 and coconut oil in particular increases body temperature and is preferentially used by the body for energy rather than storage.4 The claim about benefits to blood pressure is not one that I have ever made, and as far as I know, there are no human studies that have looked at the effect of coconut oil on blood pressure. The story is a report by Dr. Mary Newport, a neonatologist and medical director of the newborn intensive care unit at Spring Hill Regional Hospital in Florida. About six years ago, her husband, an accountant who worked at home, began struggling with daily tasks. His deterioration progressed and he was eventually diagnosed with early onset Alzheimer's. Dr. Newport searched the Internet for clinical drug trials that would accept her husband and discovered that a drug containing medium-chain triglycerides, the kind of fat in coconut oil, had achieved remarkable results—not just slowing the progression of the disease but providing real improvement. She decided to give her husband coconut oil, two tablespoons per day, and her husband immediately improved, scoring 18 on a cognitive assessment, four points higher than he had scored the previous day. Within a week he showed tremendous improvement and five months later her husband was leading a relatively normal life, although still unable to resume his work as an accountant, apparently due to permanent brain damage. Coconut oil holds potential in the treatment of cancer as well, as several studies have indicated coconut oil's anticarcinogenic effects.15 Lim-Sylianco CY. Anticarcinogenic effect of coconut oil. The Philippine Journal of Coconut Studies 12:89-102;1987; Reddy BS, Maeura Y. Tumor promotion of dietary fat in azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis in female F 344 rats. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 72:745- 750;1984; Cohen LA and others. Dietary fat and mammary cancer. I. Promoting effects of different dietary fats on N-nitrosomethylurea-induced rat mammary tumorigenesis. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 77:33;1986; Cohen LA and others. Dietary fat and mammary cancer. II. Modulation of serum and tumor lipid composition and tumor prostaglandins by different dietary fats: Association with tumor incidence patterns. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 77:43;1986. Mary G. Enig, PhD is an expert of international renown in the field of lipid biochemistry. She has headed a number of studies on the content and effects of trans fatty acids in America and Israel, and has successfully challenged government assertions that dietary animal fat causes cancer and heart disease. Recent scientific and media attention on the possible adverse health effects of trans fatty acids has brought increased attention to her work. She is a licensed nutritionist, certified by the Certification Board for Nutrition Specialists, a qualified expert witness, nutrition consultant to individuals, industry and state and federal governments, contributing editor to a number of scientific publications, Fellow of the American College of Nutrition and President of the Maryland Nutritionists Association. She is the author of over 60 technical papers and presentations, as well as a popular lecturer. Dr. Enig is currently working on the exploratory development of an adjunct therapy for AIDS using complete medium chain saturated fatty acids from whole foods. She is Vice-President of the Weston A Price Foundation and Scientific Editor of Wise Traditions as well as the author of Know Your Fats: The Complete Primer for Understanding the Nutrition of Fats, Oils, and Cholesterol, Bethesda Press, May 2000. She is the mother of three healthy children brought up on whole foods including butter, cream, eggs and meat. Tocotrienols and stroke-induced Injuries In the peer-reviewed Stroke journal (Oct 2005), oral supplementation of a natural full spectrum palm tocotrienol complex to spontaneously hypertensive rats led to increased tocotrienols level in the brain. The rats, supplemented with tocotrienols, showed more protection against stroke-induced injury compared to controls (non-supplemented group). This study demonstrated that oral supplementation of the palm tocotrienol complex acts on key molecular checkpoints (c-Src and 12-Lipoxygenase) to protect against glutamate- and stroke-induced neurodegeneration and ultimately protect against stroke in vivo._[37]

The protective effects of tocotrienols are independent of their antioxidant activity because tocopherols were effective only at higher concentrates._[38]_

In 2005, a study jointly undertaken at Wayne State University and Ohio State University Medical Center show that tocotrienol can be efficiently delivered to organs and could therefore offer the health benefits suggested by in vitro and in vivo studies._[39]_

"Our results demonstrate that tocotrienols is efficiently delivered to the bloodstream despite the fact that the transfer protein has a lower affinity for tocotrienols than it has for tocopherols," said Chandan Sen of Ohio State University and senior author of the study.[_cite this quote_ ] The researchers recruited women with normal cholesterol levels (average age of 23.5 years old) and gave them a fat-rich strawberry smoothie containing 400 mg of vitamin E containing 77 mg alpha-tocotrienol, 96 mg delta-tocotrienol, and 3 mg gamma-tocotrienol, plus tocopherols. Since vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin, the researchers chose to deliver the micronutrient in a fat-loaded meal in order to improve absorption. Blood measurements in the post-prandial period showed that maximal alpha-tocotrienol levels averaged almost 3 micromoles in blood plasma, 1.7 micromoles in low density lipoproteins, and 0.5 micromoles in high density lipoproteins. "This work present first evidence demonstrating the post-absorptive fate of tocotrienol isomers and their association with lipoprotein subfractions in humans," wrote lead author Pramod Khosla of Wayne State University.[_cite this quote_
( ] These concentrations, say the researchers, are sufficient to support the proposed neuro-protective functions of tocotrienol. "We have determined that when administered orally, tocotrienol can reach concentrations needed to serve these… protective functions," said Sen. "It is a regular dietary ingredient in Asia, so it can safely be a part of a daily diet within prepared foods or as a supplement in the United States." Can it be therapeutically used to prevent stroke? "Results from animal studies are encouraging, but it is still too soon to tell for humans," he added.[_cite this quote_ ]
[_edit_§ion=7 ] Tocotrienols and pancreatic cancer Pancreatic cancer represents the fourth-leading cause of cancer death in the United States, with a dismal 5-year survival rate of less than 5%. Early detection and screening for pancreatic cancer in the current state should be limited to high-risk patients, although hereditary/familial factors account for only 10% of patients with pancreatic cancer._[40]_  _[41]_ Tocotrienols are more effective antioxidants than tocopherols because its unsaturated _side chain_ facilitate better penetration into saturated fatty layers of the _brain_  _[42]_ and _liver_ _[43]_ Tocotrienols can lower _tumor_ formation,_[44]_ #cite_note-43
_DNA_ damage and _cell_ damage.
_[45]_  In a 1993 study where rats were induced with potent liver cancer agent, scientists found less liver cell damage in the group fed with palm tocotrienols._[24]_ _[46]_

In 2009, scientists at Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Texas Woman's University evaluated the impact of d-delta-tocotrienol, a potent vitamin E isomer, on human MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1 pancreatic carcinoma cells and BxPC-3 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells. They concluded suppression of mevalonate pathway activities, be it by modulators of HMG CoA reductase (statins, tocotrienols, and farnesol), farnesyl transferase (farnesyl transferase inhibitors), and/or mevalonate pyrophosphate decarboxylase (phenylacetate) activity, have a potential in pancreatic cancer chemotherapy._[47]_

Moreover, a Phase I dose-escalating study evaluating the effect of a pure Tocotrienol delta isomer extracted from palm oil towards individuals with Pancreatic cancer is currently underway at the Moffitt Cancer Centre, and is the first time tocotrienol has been clinically evaluated in humans towards cancer._[48]_
[_edit_§ion=8 ] Tocotrienols and breast cancer In the 1990s, studies showed tocotrienols are the components of vitamin E responsible for growth inhibition in human _breast cancer_ cells _in vitro_ ,_[49]_ through estrogen-independent mechanisms._[50]_

Tocotrienols work synergistically with tamoxifen, a commonly used breast cancer medicine, in killing cancer cells._[51]_

Tocotrienols can also affect cell _homeostasis_ , possibly independently of their antioxidant activity._[52]_

Anti-cancer effects of ?- and ?-tocotrienol have been reported, although ?-tocotrienol was verified to be the most effective tocotrienol in inducing _apoptosis_

_[53]_ (cell death) in estrogen-responsive and estrogen-nonresponsive human breast cancer cells. Based on these results on cells in culture, investigators have hypothesised that a mixture of ?- and ? -tocotrienols might reduce breast cancer risk._[54]_

Further studies on tocotrienol and breast cancer indicated that gamma-tocotrienol targets cancer cells by inhibiting Id1, a key cancer-promoting protein. Gamma-tocotrienol was shown to trigger cell apoptosis and well as anti-proliferation of cancer cells. This mechanism was also observed in separate prostate cancer and melanoma cell line studies_[55]_ . In 2009, a study by scientists at the College of Pharmacy, University of Louisiana at Monroe showed statins and tocotrienols provide significant health benefits in the treatment of breast cancer in women, while avoiding myotoxicity associated with high dose statin monotherapy._[56]_
[_edit_§ion=9 ] Tocotrienols and prostate cancer Investigation of the _antiproliferative_ effect of tocotrienols in PC3 and LNCaP _prostate cancer_ cells suggests that the transformation of vitamin E to CEHC is mostly a _detoxification_ mechanism, useful to maintain the malignant properties of prostate cancer cells._[57]_
(  However, recent research suggested that ? -tocotrienol was most potent in suppressing prostate cancer cell proliferation, and that the antiproliferative effect of ?-tocotrienol act through multiple-signalling pathways (NF-B, EGF-R and Id family proteins). In addition, the same study demonstrated the anti-invasion and chemosensitisation effect of ? -tocotrienol against PCa cells._[58]_
[_edit_ (§ion=10 ] Tocotrienols and skin cancer In a 2009 study at the Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, scientists found reduction in skin cancer cells when treated with gamma-tocotrienol with chemotherapy drugs. For the first time, researchers recorded the anti-invasion and chemonsensitization effect of gamma-tocotrienol against human malignant melanoma cells._[59]_
[_edit_§ion=11 ] Tocotrienols and cholesterol reduction The human body makes cholesterol from the liver, producing about 1g of _cholesterol_ each day or 80% of the needed total body cholesterol. The remaining 20% comes from what we eat. Excessive cholesterol is a health risk because gradual fatty deposit clog up the arteries. This will cause blood flow to the brain, heart, kidneys and other parts of the body become less efficient. _Cholesterol_ , though needed metabolically, is not essential in diet. Tocotrienols can decrease the liver's capacity to manufacture cholesterol. It does so by suppressing the HMG-CoA reductase, the enzyme in the liver responsible for cholesterol synthesis._[20]_ In 1993, American scientists conducted a double-blind placebo controlled study of 50 volunteers at the Kenneth Jordan Heart Foundation and Elmhurst Medical Center. Their results suggested that palm tocotrienols could ease clogged arteries. Seven high cholesterol patients with narrowing arteries experienced reverse arterial blockage of the carotid artery after consuming palm tocotrienols, while in two the conditioned worsened._[16]_ This compared to the control group, where none improved and ten worsened. Tocotrienols, especially ?- and ?-tocotrienols, were shown to be effective nutritional agents in treating high cholesterol. In particular, ? -tocotrienol appears to act on a specific _enzyme_ (

) called 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme and suppresses the production of this enzyme, resulting in less cholesterol being manufactured by liver cells._[60]_ (

) While a 1995 study in chickens indicated that the presence of dietary alpha-tocopherol may interfere with tocotrienol's ability to lower cholesterol _[61]_ (

) although a later study found the interference was seen towards alpha-tocotrienol only._[62]_ (

) [_edit_ (§ion=12

) ] Tocotrienols and diabetes According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 170 million people were affected by diabetes in the year 2002, and this number is likely to increase to 366 million by the year 2030._[63]_ (

) Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been recognized as the sole independent risk factor for the development of any cardiovascular disease._[64]_ (

) Cardiovascular complications include stroke and heart attack, are increasingly causing death in diabetic patients. Alarmingly, literature statistics indicate that atherosclerosis accounts for about 8 to 10% of all diabetic deaths._[65]_ (

) Recent studies are showing that vitamin E intake significantly reduce risk of type 2 diabetes. The relative risk (RR) of type 2 diabetes between the extreme quartiles of the intake was 0.69 (95% CI 0.51-0.94, P for trend=0.003). Intakes of alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, delta-tocopherol, and beta-tocotrienol were inversely related to a risk of type 2 _diabetes_ (

) . While _correlation does not imply causation_ (

) , these data suggest the possibility that the development of type 2 diabetes might be modified by the intake of antioxidants in the diet._[66]_ (

) In 2009, animal trials carried out in India and Malaysia revealed palm tocotrienols improved blood glucose, dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in diabetic rats. It is able to prevent the progression of vascular wall changes occurring in DM._[67]_ (

) _[68]_ (

) [_edit_ (§ion=13

) ] No-observed-adverse-effect level A 13-week study by H. Nakamura and colleagues at the _National Institute of Health Sciences (Japan)_ (

) of tocotrienols' toxicity in rats found significant changes in several blood components, increases in liver weights and (in females) reductions in ovary and uterus weights, depending on the dosages. The authors estimated the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) to be 120 mg per kg of body weight per day for males and 130 mg per kg of body weight per day for females. Since effects on the blood components were observed in all cases with non-placebos, a no-observed-effect level (NOEL) could not be determined._[35]_ (

) [_edit_ (§ion=14

) ] See also * _Lycopene_ (

) [_edit_ (§ion=15

) ] References

1. _^_ (

) Whittle KJ, Dunphy PJ, Pennock JF (July 1966). _"The isolation and properties of delta-tocotrienol from Hevea latex"_ (

) . The Biochemical Journal 100 (1): 138–45. _PMID_ (

) _5965249_ (

) . 2. _^_ (

) Brigelius-Flohé R, Traber MG (July 1999). _"Vitamin E: function and metabolism"_ (

) . The FASEB Journal 13 (10): 1145–55. _PMID_ (

) _10385606_ (

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